Mizrahi (in Hebrew, “Eastern” or “Oriental”) Jews come from Middle Eastern ancestry. The oldest and largest communities were in modern day Iraq, Iran and Yemen. Sometimes confused with Sephartic Jews they maintain a distinct heritage while sharing some religious customs. Today the vast majority of Mizrahi Jews have emigrated to Israel or the United States.
Mizrahi culture has infiltrated aspects of music and food. In the United States some enclaves of Mizrahi Jews had establishes particularly strong ties and established Persian or Bukharan synagogues. Language barriers have hampered the assimilation of these communities.
The Jews of Ethiopia Beta Israel (House of Israel) may have existed for as many as 15 centuries. As a primarily nomadic people only an oral history existed until modern times. In 1974 when Ethiopia came under a Marxist-Leninist dictatorship, the Jews of Ethiopia suffered famine, religious persecution and war.
Menachem Begin recognized the plight of the Ethiopian Jews and in exchange for arms was able to bring about 200 individuals to Israel. In the ensuing years almost 15,000 were able to escape to Israel leaving a small number in Ethiopia. Falasha Maura is the name given to those of the Beta Israel community in Ethiopia and Eritrea who converted to Christianity under pressure from the missionaries during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Assimilation has been a problem for the Ethiopian Jew in Israel and the government is continuing to address the issue.
Source My Jewish Learning Center